Erikson's Stages of Development Chart

The most widely accepted theory of how human beings develop from infancy to old age is Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. At each stage, there is a crisis to be resolved and a virtue to be gained. According to the theory, failure to properly master each step leads to problems in the future.

 

Age

Crisis

Virtue

Description

Freud

Stage 1

0-1 erikson stages Trust
vs
Mistrust
Hope At this stage babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she might grow up with a general mistrust of the world. Oral

Stage 2

2-3 Stage 2 Autonomy
vs
Shame & Doubt
Will As toddlers, children begin to develop independence and start to learn that they can do some things on their own (such as going to the toilet). If a child is not encouraged properly at this age, he or she might develop shame and doubt about their abilities. Anal

Stage 3

4-6 Stage 3 Initiative
vs
Guilt
Purpose As preschoolers, children continue to develop more independence and start to do things of their own initiative. If a child is not able to take initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks, he or she might develop guilt over their needs and desires. Phallic

Stage 4

7-12 Stage 4 Industry
vs
Inferiority
Competence Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self-confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex. Latent

Stage 5

13-19 Stage 5 Identity
vs
Role Confusion
Fidelity When they reach the teenage years, children start to care about how they look to others. They start forming their own identity by experimenting with who they are. If a teenager is unable to properly develop an identity at this age, his or her role confusion will probably continue on into adulthood. Genital

Stage 6

20-34 Stage 6 Intimacy
vs
Isolation
Love During early adulthood most people fall in love, get married and start building their own family. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships), they will probably develop feelings of isolation.

Stage 7

35-65 Stage 7 Generativity
vs
Stagnation
Care This is the longest period of a human's life. It is the stage in which people are usually working and contributing to society in some way and perhaps raising their children. If a person does not find proper ways to be productive during this period, they will probably develop feelings of stagnation.

Stage 8

65+ Stage 8 Integrity
vs
Despair
Wisdom As senior citizens, people tend to look back on their lives and think about what they have or have not accomplished. If a person has led a productive life, they will develop a feeling of integrity. If not, they might fall into despair.

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