The Big Five Personality Traits

The closest thing to consensus among academics who study personality psychology is the Big Five Personality Traits. They were originally discovered by an analysis of which personality-based adjectives tend to cluster together.

The model correlates with Raymond Cattell's 5 global factors (based on the 16PF) and to a lesser extent with Hans Eysenck's PEN model (in which there is only a "big three") There is also a rough correlation with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® and several other popular typing systems.
Note: [Brackets] indicate a reverse trait label.

N

E

O

A

C

Five Factor Model

NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae)

Neuroticism

Extraversion

Openness

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Biological Basis

Increased sensitivity to threat (limbic system, serotonin) Increased sensitivity to reward (midbrain, dopamine) Increased breadth of mental associations Increased empathy and regard for others Increased ability to inhibit impulses (prefrontal cortex)

Lexical Big 5

(Lewis Goldberg)
[ Emotional Stability ] Surgency Intellect / Culture Agreeableness Conscientiousness

5 Global Factors

16PF (Raymond Cattell)

Anxiety

[C], L, O, Q4
Extraversion

A, F, H, [N], [Q2]
Receptivity

A, I, M, Q1
[ Independence ]

E, H, L, Q1
Self-control

[F], G, [M], Q3

P-E-N Model

EPQ (Hans Eysenck)
Neuroticism Extraversion [ Psychoticism ]

MMPI-2 'Psy-5'

(Allan Harkness)
Negative Emotionality Positive Emotionality Psychoticism [ Aggressiveness ] [ Disconstraint ]

Myers-Briggs

(based on Carl Jung)
E - Extraversion
vs
[ I - Introversion ]
N - Intuition
vs
[ S - Sensing ]
F - Feeling
vs
[ T - Thinking ]
J - Judging
vs
[ P - Perceiving ]

HBDI

(Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument)
D - Imaginitive
vs
[ B - Sequential ]
C - Interpersonal
vs
[ A - Analytical ]

DISC

Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientious
Active (D & I)
vs
[ Passive (S & C) ]
People (I & S)
vs
[ Task (D & C) ]

The Four Humours

(Galen, 2nd century CE)
Choleric &
Melancholic
vs
[ Sanguine ] &
[ Phlegmatic ]
Sanguine &
Choleric
vs
[ Phlegmatic ] &
[ Melancholic ]

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